Thursday, April 2, 2020
Civil Disobedience Thoreau was once sent to jail for refusing to pay his taxes and I support this episode of civil disobedience as justified. Thoreau did not pay his taxes because he objected the use of the revenue to finance the Mexican War and enforcement of slavery laws. He did not request for his money to be used for the enforcement of slavery laws, therefore felt he had the right to protest and act out civil disobedience. Paul Harris defines civil disobedience as "an illegal, public, nonviolent, conscientiously motivated act of protest, done by someone who accepts the legitimacy of the legal and political systems and who submits to arrest and punishment" (2). Before I supported his civil disobedience, I opted to see if it was justified. For Thoreau's arrest to be an act of civil disobedience, it has to be publicized. Being publicized distinguishes his arrest as civil disobedience rather than being criminal (7). Thoreau had many people offering to pay his taxes but refused to take them. His refusal made his arrest publicized enough for someone to pay his taxes to release him from jail. Civil disobedient acts need to be publicized to show the participant is against the political system. Thoreau showed he was against paying taxes by wanting to stay in jail and arguing that he should be the only person to pay his own taxes. This indicates he wanted his disobedience justified. For acts of civil disobedience to be justified, those acts need to be acts of protest. Thoreau desired a change in the law and the political system, so he attempted to change a flaw in the governmental law. He demanded to stay arrested and protest in hopes of a change in the law. He was not concern that he was released, but that his disobedience had an affect. This further justifies his disobedience. Nonviolence is a requirement for an act to be an act of civil disobedience (10). Nonviolence is a defining characteristic of civil disobedience (10). Thoreau's use of nonviolence means a serious purpose of justifying his protest against taxes and shows the respect for human rights as a moral value (10). Thoreau, when asked to go to jail, agreed to go without violence and did not let violence intrude into the process of the protest. I believe being civil disobedient involves nonviolent protests like Rosa Parks' civil disobedience against racial segregation of blacks sitting in the front of buses. Both Thoreau and Parks used nonviolent tactics to change political law. I support both Thoreau and Parks for breaking unjust laws to change and make a difference in our government law. I support Henry David Thoreau's disobedient act against paying taxes. He did not want his money to be use in a way he did not desire. Standing up for what you believe in and being disobedient does not necessary mean committing an illegal act. It can change the law to better suit society. People practicing civil disobedience break a law because they consider the law unjust, and want to call attention to its injustice, hoping to bring about its withdrawal.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Speed-the-Plow Plot Summary and Study Guide Speed-the-Plow is a play written by David Mamet. It is comprised of three lengthy scenes involving the corporate dreams and strategies of Hollywood executives. The original Broadway production of Speed-the-Plow opened on May 3rd, 1988. It starred Joe Mantegna as Bobby Gould, Ron Silver as Charlie Fox, and (making her Broadway debut) pop-icon Madonna as Karen. What does the title Speed-the-Plow mean? The title is derived from a phrase in a 15th-century work-song, God speed the plough. It was a prayer for prosperity and productivity. Plot Summary of Act One: Speed-the-Plow begins with the introduction of Bobby Gould, a recently promoted Hollywood executive. Charlie Fox is a business colleague (ranking below Gould) who brings in a movie script that is connected to a hit-making director. During the first scene, the two men gush about how successful they will become, all thanks to the script option. (The screenplay is a stereotypically violent prison/action movie.) Gould makes a call to his boss. The boss is out of town but will be back the next morning and Gould guarantees that the deal will be approved and that Fox and Gould will get a producer credit. While they discuss the mutual hardships of their early days together, they also mingle with Karen, a temporary receptionist. When Karen is out of the office, Fox wagers that Gould wont be able to seduce Karen. Gould takes the challenge, offended by the idea that Karen would be attracted to his position at the studio, but incapable of loving him as a person. After Fox leaves the office, Gould encourages Karen to become more goal-oriented. He gives her a book to read and asks her to stop by his house and provide a review. The book is titled The Bridge or, Radiation and the Half-Life of Society. Gould has only glanced at it, but he already knows that it is a pretentious attempt at intellectual art, unsuitable for a movie, especially a movie at his studio. Karen agrees to meet him later in the evening, and the scene ends with Gould convinced that he will win his bet with Fox. Plot Summary of Act Two: The second act of Speed-the-Plow takes place entirely in Goulds apartment. It opens with Karen passionately reading from the Radiation book. She claims that the book is profound and important; it has changed her life and taken away all fear. Gould tries to explain how the book would fail as a film. He explains that his job is not to create art but to create a marketable product. Karen continues to persuade, however, as her conversation becomes more personal. She states that Gould does not have to be afraid anymore; he does not have to lie about his intentions. In her scene-closing monolog, Karen says: KAREN: You asked me to read the book. I read the book. Do you know what it says? It says that you were put here to make stories people need to see. To make them less afraid. It says in spite of our transgressions - that we could do something. Which would bring us alive. So that we neednt feel ashamed. By the end of her monolog, it is apparent that Gould has fallen for her, and that she spends the night with him. Plot Summary of Act Three: The final act of Speed-the-Plow returns to Goulds office. Its the morning after. Fox enters and begins to scheme about their upcoming meeting with the boss. Gould calmly states that he will not be green-lighting the prison script. Instead, he plans to make the Radiation book. Fox does not take him seriously at first, but when he finally realizes that Gould is serious, Fox becomes furious. Fox argues that Gould has gone insane and that the source of his madness is Karen. It seems that during the previous evening (before, after or during love-making) Karen has convinced Gould that the book is a beautiful work of art that must be adapted into a film. Gould believes that green-lighting the Radiation book is the right thing to do. Fox becomes so angry that he punches Gould twice. He demands that Gould tells the story of the book in one sentence, but because the book is so complex (or so convoluted) Gould is unable to explain the story. Then, when Karen enters, he demands that she answers a question: FOX: My question: you answer me frankly, as I know you will: you came to his house with the preconception, you wanted him to greenlight the book. KAREN: Yes. FOX: If he had said no, would you have gone to bed with him? When Karen admits that she would not have had sex with Gould if he did not agree to produce the book, Gould is flung into despair. He feels lost, as though everyone wants a piece of him, everyone wants to leech off of his success. When Karen tries to persuade him by saying Bob, we have a meeting, Gould realizes that she has been manipulating him. Karen doesnt even care about the book; she just wanted a chance to quickly move up the Hollywood food chain. Gould exits to his washroom, leaving Fox to promptly fire her. In fact, he does more than fire her, he threatens: You ever come on the lot again, Im going to have you killed. As she exits, he throws the Radiation book after her. When Gould re-enters the scene, he is glum. Fox tries to cheer him up, talking about the future and the movie that they will soon be producing. The last lines of the play: FOX: Well, so we learn a lesson. But we arent here to pine, Bob, we arent here to mope. What are we here to do (pause) Bob? After everything is said and done. What are we put on earth to do? GOULD: Were here to make a movie. FOX: Whose name goes above the title? GOULD: Fox and Gould. FOX: Then how bad can life be? And so, Speed-the-Plow ends with Gould realizing that most, perhaps all, people will desire him for his power. Some, like Fox, will do it openly and blatantly. Others, like Karen, will try to deceive him. Foxs final line asks Gould to look on the bright side, but since their movie products seem shallow and overtly commercial, it seems that there is little satisfaction to Goulds successful career.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Business strategy - Assignment Example Continuous upgradation of its fleet is another area of its core competency. Strategic analysis using PESTEL and Five Forces analysis suggests that Etihad operates in an attractive industry but the buying power of consumers is high due to high level of competition in the industry. However, because of their core strengths, the airline would be able to achieve its goals and mission. There is ample opportunity for growth and expansion and based on its differentiation strategy, Etihad would continue to grow. Etihad has the location advantage also but customer service is not difficult to replicate and hence, Etihad needs to pursue differentiation through the economic support of the emirate. Analysis of the business strategy helps ascertain the location of the organization within the industry environment. Strategy need not be based on rational planning or even conscious making decision assumptions (Mintzberg, 1987). Strategy can be formulated at three different levels Ã¢â¬â the corporate level, the business unit level and the functional or departmental level. This paper would analyse the business level and the functional level strategy adopted by Abu Dhabi based Etihad Airlines. Sustainable competitive advantage can be created and maintained either through market position or through core competencies (Leavy, 2003). The positioning approach can be evaluated through PESTEL analysis and the generic strategies which would reveal two dimensions of positioning Ã¢â¬â the industry attractiveness and the competitive strength. The strategic choice should be on how to leverage advantage amidst the competitive environment. The strategic choice should fit with the goals and objectives to gain competitive advantage (Allen & Helms, 2006). Porter asserts that there are three basic strategies and firms perform best by adopting one of them Ã¢â¬â cost leadership, differentiation and focus (Allen & Helms, 2006). To become an industry leader, the company must be competitive. While
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Child Abuse - Essay Example More importantly, the involvement of parents in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s healing process and reduction of violent risks are also examined closely. Through qualitative evaluation, outcomes of case study includes realization that both parties, the violated children and abusive parents, need to be critically assessed and, educated and treated, for risks of future physical abused to be eliminated. Moreover, the role of nurses in the whole process of care is vital in bridging gaps between perpetrators and victims of violence. In conclusion, children are not the only groups that need to be subjected to intense nursing assessment and management; the perpetrators (parents) are also included in the overall plan of nursing care in order to improve the rampant status of physical abuse in children. ... Child abuse is a collective term frequently seen in community households. This is generally a form of maltreatment in vulnerable groups, such as young children and elderly individuals. As explained by Giardino and Giardino (2010), specific in most abuse is the Ã¢â¬Å"presence of an injury...(contracted) at the hands of his or her caregiverÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). In an abusive family, the parents are pointed out as culprits in the scene (Humphreys & Campbell, 2010). Hence, it is safe to say that during child abuse, their supposed protectors are the ones inflicting both physical and physiologic damage. In the advent of clinical and mental interventions, American Psychiatric Society (2004) emphasized that clinical priority in this is mainly centered on the victims. Yet, as this is also a family dispute, the involvement of the perpetrators in the holistic therapy is deemed important in the clinical setting. For this reason, the case presentation will focus on a thorough assessment in identifying the presence of abuse, as well as related nursing interventions targeting resolutions in the conditions surrounding child victims and their perpetrators. Basic Assessment Measures in Physical Abuse Child abuse is a difficult case to prove. The first step towards the process of keeping victims safe is Ã¢â¬Å"detection and identification,Ã¢â¬ a recognition that such incidents can happen in the community (Videbeck, 2010, p. 187). Hence, nurses involved in direct care of clients need to maintain an open mind and critical attitude in order to aptly identify risk factors increasing the likelihood of children suffering from physical abuse. In the nursing process of uncovering the truth, White (2004) suggests inclusion of both subjective and objective data
Monday, January 27, 2020
Efficient Database Driven Reverse Mapping Dictionary Building an Efficient Database Driven Reverse Mapping Dictionary ABSTRACT With the enormous availability of words in usage it is always being a challenge to find the meaning. Even the versatile speaker may thrash about finding a meaning for certain unheard words. In such cases they need some source for reference like dictionary. In traditional model for using dictionary, forward concept is implemented where it result in set of definition and it may produce a comprehensive phases. This may even confuse the user with the different concept of understanding or sometimes user could not understand the detailed concept. To overcome this concept, we facilitate reverse dictionary in which for any phases or word, the appropriate single word meaning is given. This system also facilitates to provide the relevant meaning even if that word is not available in the database. It will also produce instant output for the user input. 1. INTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORKS 1.1 ABOUT THE PROJECT:- Reverse Dictionary:- A reverse dictionary is a dictionary organized in a non-standard order that provides the user with information that would be difficult to obtain from a traditionally alphabetized dictionary. For example, A Reverse Dictionary of the Spanish Language and Walkers Rhyming Dictionary are reverse dictionaries, the organization of which is based upon sorting each entry word based upon its last letter and the subsequent letters proceeding toward the beginning of that word. Consequently, in these reverse dictionaries all words that have the same suffix appear in order in the dictionary. Such a reverse dictionary would be useful for linguists and poets who might be looking for words ending with a particular suffix, or by an anthropologist or forensics specialist examining a damaged text (e.g. a stone inscription, or a burned document) that had only the final portion of a particular word preserved. Reverse dictionaries of this type have been published for most major alphabetical languages (see numerous examples listed below). By way of contrast, in a standard dictionary words are organized such that words with the same prefix appear in order, since the sorting order is starting with the first letter of the entry word and subsequent letters proceeding toward the end of that word. Reverse dictionaries of this type were historically difficult to produce before the advent of the electronic computer and have become more common since the first computer sorted one appeared in 1974. Another use of the term reverse dictionary is for a reference work that is organized by concepts, phrases, or the definitions of words. This is in contrast to a standard dictionary, in which words are indexed by the headwords, but similar in function to a thesaurus, where one can look up a concept by some common, general word, and then find a list of near-synonyms of that word. (For example, in a thesaurus one could look up doctor and be presented with such words as healer, physician, surgeon, M.D., medical man, medicine man, academician, professor, scholar, sage, master, expert.) In theory, a reverse dictionary might go further than this, allowing you to find a word by its definition only. Such dictionaries have become more practical with the advent of computerized information-storage and retrieval systems Online Dictionary: On Line reverse dictionary lets you describe a concept and get back a list of words and phrases related to that concept. Your description can be a few words, a sentence, a question, or even just a single word. Just type it into the box above and hit the Find words button. Keep it short to get the best results. In most cases youll get back a list of related terms with the best matches shown first. How does it work? On Line indexes hundreds of online dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference sites. By now you may have used the standard search available from the home page, which shows you a list of definition links for any word you type in. This is the reverse: Here we search our references for words that have definitions conceptually similar to the words you search for. We do this using a motley assortment of statistical language processing hacks. Online reverse dictionary (RD). As opposed to a regular (forward) dictionary that maps words to their definitions, a RD performs the converse mapping, i.e., given a phrase describing the desired concept, it provides words whose definitions match the entered definition phrase. For example, suppose a forward dictionary informs the user that the meaning of the word Ã¢â¬Å"spelunkingÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"exploring caves.Ã¢â¬ A reverse dictionary, on the other hand, offers the user an opportunity to enter the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"check out natural cavesÃ¢â¬ as input, and expect to receive the word Ã¢â¬Å"spelunkingÃ¢â¬ (and possibly other words with similar meanings) as output. Effectively, the RD addresses the Ã¢â¬Å"word is on the tip of my tongue, but I canÃ¢â¬â¢t quite remember itÃ¢â¬ problem. A particular category of people afflicted heavily by this problem are writers, including students, professional writers, scientists, marketing and advertisement professionals, teachers, the l ist goes on. In fact, for most people with a certain level of education, the problem is often not lacking knowledge of the meaning of a word, but, rather, being unable to recall the appropriate word on demand. The RD addresses this widespread problem. 2. EXISTING SYSTEM:- In the fact that it is more significant to make a reference for unheard word, user prefers a source like dictionary for better understanding. The performance allows online interaction with users Current semantic similarity measurement schemes that are highly computationally intensive. In this technique, concepts are represented as vectors in a feature (or keyword) space. The two most common methods to achieve this, latent semantic indexing (LSI) and principal component analysis (PCA), both analyze the keywords of documents in a corpus to identify the dominant concepts in the document. Subsequently these dominant concepts are represented as vectors in the keyword space and are used as the basis of similarity comparison for classification. In most implementations of Concept Similarity Problem (CSP) solutions, vectorization is done a priori, and at runtime, only vector distances are computed. Drawbacks It requires the userÃ¢â¬â¢s input phrase to contain words that exactly match a dictionary definition; It does not scale wellÃ¢â¬âfor a dictionary containing more than 100,000 defined words, where each word may have multiple definitions, it would require potentially hundreds of thousands of queries to return a result. 3. PROPOSED SYSTEM:- Report the creation of the WordStar Reverse Dictionary (WRD), a database-driven RD system that attempts to address the core issues identified above. The WRD not only fulfils new functional objectives outlined above, it does so at an order of magnitude performance and scale improvement over the best concept similarity measurement schemes available without impacting solution quality. We also demonstrate that the WRD is far better in solution quality than the two commercial RDs available. Our reverse dictionary system is based on the notion that a phrase that conceptually describes a word should resemble the wordÃ¢â¬â¢s actual definition, if not matching the exact words, then at least conceptually similar. Consider, for example, the following concept phrase: Ã¢â¬Å"talks a lot, but without much substance.Ã¢â¬ Based on such a phrase, a reverse dictionary should return words such as Ã¢â¬Å"gabby,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"chatty,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"garrulous.Ã¢â¬ However, a definition of Ã¢â¬Å"garrulousÃ¢â¬ in a dictionary might actually be Ã¢â¬Å"full of trivial conversation,Ã¢â¬ which is obviously close in concept, but contains no exact matching words. In our RD, a user might input a phrase describing an unknown term of interest. Since an input phrase might potentially satisfy the definition of multiple words, a RD should return a set of possible matches from which a user may select his/her choice of terms. This is complex, however, because the user is unlikely to e nter a definition that exactly matches one found in a dictionary. The meaning of the phrase the user entered should be conceptually similar enough to an actual dictionary definition to generate a set of possible matches, e.g., returning to the Ã¢â¬Å"talks a lot, but without much substanceÃ¢â¬ example, our reverse dictionary should return words like Ã¢â¬Å"garrulous.Ã¢â¬ Advantages It does so at an order of magnitude performance Scale improvement over the best concept similarity measurement schemes available without impacting solution quality The system architecture diagram enables you to graphically model the applications of a system, and the externals that they interface with and data stores that they use or provide information to. The following information describes the symbols used on the diagram: Application It uses the Application symbol to represent an entire application and graphically show on this diagram how it is related to externals and data stores. Within the application definition, it can specify overall information about the application the process threads in the organization that it enables, the type of team effort being used to build it, etc. To specify more details on the implementation of the application, you can create child Data Flow diagrams or UML diagrams, depending on the nature of the application. Data Flow It can model the flow of data as it moves from one point in the system to another with the Data Flow line. The flow might be between externals and applications, or applications and data stores. Within the data flow you can model the data elements and data structures used. Data flows can split into two or more flows, or they can join to one from two or more flows. Material Flow It can model the direction of the flow of physical items and materials in the system with the Material Flow line. The flow might be between externals and applications, or applications and data stores. Data Store A Data Store symbol is where data rests when it is neither flowing nor being operated on. A data store can be a database, hard disk, floppy disk, or a file on a disk. Multi-Data Store A Multi-Data Store symbol is used to denote that multiple instances of the data store exist. This convention is used to avoid drawing a copy of a schema for each equivalent data store when you build a data model. External An External symbol represents an object that sends information or data to the system, or takes information from the system, but is not itself part of the system. Multi-External A Multi-External symbol is used to denote that multiple instances of the external exist. 4. CONCLUSION:- In this paper, we describe the significant challenges inherent in building a reverse dictionary, and map the problem to the well-known conceptual similarity problem. We propose a set of methods for building and querying a reverse dictionary, and describe a set of experiments that show the quality of our results, as well as the runtime performance under load. Our experimental results show that our approach can provide significant improvements in performance scale without sacrificing solution quality. Our experiments comparing the quality of our approach to that of Dictionary.com and OneLook.com reverse dictionaries show that the Wordster approach can provide significantly higher quality over either of the other currently available implementations 5. REFERENCES IEEE:-  R. Baeza-Yates and B. Ribeiro-Neto, Modern Information Retrieval. ACM Press, 2011.  D.M. Blei, A.Y. Ng, and M.I. Jordan, Ã¢â¬Å"Latent Dirichlet Allocation,Ã¢â¬ J. Machine Learning Research, vol. 3, pp. 993-1022, Mar. 2003.  J. Carlberger, H. Dalianis, M. Hassel, and O. Knutsson, Ã¢â¬Å"Improving Precision in Information Retrieval for Swedish Using Stemming,Ã¢â¬ Technical Report IPLab-194, TRITA-NA-P0116, Interaction and Presentation Laboratory, Royal Inst. of Technology and Stockholm Univ., Aug. 2001.  H. Cui, R. Sun, K. Li, M.-Y. Kan, and T.-S. Chua, Ã¢â¬Å"Question Answering Passage Retrieval Using Dependency Relations,Ã¢â¬ Proc. 28th Ann. IntÃ¢â¬â¢l ACM SIGIR Conf. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 400-407, 2005.  T. Dao and T. Simpson, Ã¢â¬Å"Measuring Similarity between Sentences,Ã¢â¬ http://opensvn.csie.org/WordNetDotNet/trunk/Projects/Thanh/Paper/WordNetDotNet_Semantic_Similarity.pdf (last accessed 16 Oct. 2009), 2009. Dictionary.com, LLC, Ã¢â¬Å"Reverse Dictionary,Ã¢â¬ http://dictionary. reference.com/reverse, 2009.  J. Earley, Ã¢â¬Å"An Efficient Context-Free Parsing Algorithm,Ã¢â¬ Comm. ACM, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 94-102, 1970.  Forrester Consulting, Ã¢â¬Å"Ecommerce Web Site Performance Today,Ã¢â¬ http://www.akamai.com/2seconds, Aug. 2009.  E. Gabrilovich and S. Markovitch, Ã¢â¬Å"Wikipedia-Based Semantic Interpretation for Natural Language Processing,Ã¢â¬ J. Artificial Intelligence Research, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 443-498, 2009.  V. Hatzivassiloglou, J. Klavans, and E. Eskin, Ã¢â¬Å"Detecting Text Similarity over Short Passages: Exploring Linguistic Feature Combinations Via Machine Learning,Ã¢â¬ Proc. Joint SIGDAT Conf. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora, pp. 203-212, June 1999.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Antigone: Divine Law vs. Human Law The play entitled Antigone was written by a man named Sophocles, a scholarly author of philosophy and logic. The play Antigone is probably one of the most prominent interpretations of a tragic drama. The two main characters of the play are Antigone and Creon. There is much conflict between Antigone and Creon throughout the play, both of them having their own ideas and opinions regarding divine law versus human law. The theme that I am going to analyze is the conflict of divine law vs. human law. The reason for this is because this theme seems to control the whole play. It is an issue of which law is the "right" law, and if Creon's and Antigone's acts were justifiable. The play Antigone can be summarized by the following: King Creon lets it be known that Polyneices the traitor is not to be buried, but his sister Antigone defies the order because of the values she holds. She is caught, and sentenced by Creon to be buried alive - even though she is to be married to his son Haemon. After the blind prophet Tiresias proves that the gods are on Antigone's side, Creon changes his mind - but too late. He goes first to bury Polyneices, but Antigone has already hanged herself. When Creon arrives at the tomb, Haemon attacks him and then kills himself. When the news of their death is reported, Creon's wife Eurydice takes her own life. Creon ends up being all alone due to the fact that his family members took their own lives. Creon blames himself for all of these tragedies occurring, mainly because it was his wrong doings that caused them. The concept of divine law can be described as the law of God. Divine law involves morals and beliefs that are presented by God. Charles Segal describes the idea of divine law as being the "unwritten laws of the Gods" (Sophocles 64). This type of law is most likely in effect when the idea of morals are apparent, such as when a moral decision must be made. This type of decision would probably be considered right or wrong. Divine law is not only in decisions, but also in the everyday actions of people. Things that are morally "right" are in accordance with the law of God, while things that are morally "wrong" tend to be actions that go against the law of God.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
To help in rapid growth and industrialization and create necessary infrastructure for economic development. 2. Promote redistribution of income & wealth 3. Create employment opportunities 4. Promote regional balance development 5. Promote import substitution save and earn foreign exchange for country. 6. Basic Infrastructure (STC, Railways, SAIL) Organization of Public Sector Ã¢â¬ ¢Ministry ( Railway, Finance etc) Ã¢â¬ ¢Departmental Undertaking (Defense, Post & Telegraph, Defense production unit) Ã¢â¬ ¢Statutory Corporation( LIC, AIR India, IFC,RBI,ONGC, etc.. Ã¢â¬ ¢Central Board (Bhakra Nangal, Hira Kund ,Nagarjun Sagar dam) Ã¢â¬ ¢Government Companies ( Ashok Hotels, ITI, HMT Hindustan shipyard etc) Pricing Practice ?Administrative Price : Price fixed by Government ?No profit Ã¢â¬âNo loss Price ( DVC, Hindustan antibiotics, Hindustan Insecticides) ? Cost Plus Price Ã¢â¬â ITI, HAL, Bharat electronic ? Competitive Price ?Follow the leader ?Subsidized Prices ?Discriminatory Prices Private Sector ? Privatization: Transfer of ownership and control of an existing public sector enterprise ? Privatization may be full or partial. It may be selective i. e.. Some function are transformed to the private sector, which other are retained in public sector. ?Increase in competition . The Privatization movement The move towards privatization has gained momentum since 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. The following are usually mentioned reasons 1 The emergence of conservative government in principal industrial countries 2 The emergence of multinational entities 3 Technological changes The Privatization movement contd. 4 Emergence of local capital market and entrepreneurship 5 Dissatisfaction with performance of public sector Reason for Indian Privatization 1. Crippling Budget deficit 2. Spectacular growth by economies of Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia in private sector 3. Galloping cost of government intervention in trade and industry & procedural difficulty 4. Collapse of USSR& communist government in eastern Europe 5. Changes in China 6. Emergence of professional management 7. IMF & World Bank extended arm to capitalism 8. Gulf crisis 9. Lack of demand in economy 10. Integration of world trade 11. Developed local capital market and Financing Institution Recent Reasons To Strengthen Competition Ã¢â¬ ¢To improve public finance Ã¢â¬ ¢To fund Infrastructure Growth Ã¢â¬ ¢Accountability of share holders Ã¢â¬ ¢To reduce unnecessary interference Ã¢â¬ ¢More disciplined Labor force The main reason for increased efficiency gain as a result of privatization are attributed to (i)Less political interference in decision making (i)Staff remuneration is more closely linked to productivity and profitability (ii)Firm are e xposed to financial market discipline as opposed to government support (iii)FirmÃ¢â¬â¢s cost reducing effort are higher under competitive private ownership Advantages of public sector organizations Govt . Control in sensitive areas ? More employment ? Effective decision making ? Public accountability ? Access to all ? More employee satisfaction-better life work balance ? Recognition and honor ? Job security Disadvantages of public sector organizations ?Inefficiency results due to the size of the organization ?lack of incentive for employees ?Losses must be met by the taxpayer ? Political interference ? Less customer satisfaction ? High cost of delay/red tapism Disadvantages of public sector organizations contd. ?Headless plants ?Lack Demand Ã¢â¬â supply relation ?Over/Under capacity ?Fear of Scams Advantages of private sector organizations ?Quick decision making ?No political interference ?More customer satisfaction ?Easy access to capital market Disadvantages of private sector organizations ?Chances of mismanagement ?Inefficient decision making ?Less focus on poor people Ways of Privatization ? Disinvestment ? Contracting ? Franchising ? Permitting private sector enter into PSU reserved area ? Liquidation ? Leasing Disinvestment Long Term strategy on disinvestment 1. Strengthen profitable PSU to promote greater competitiveness to enable payment of higher dividends to the government to enhance Value 2. Financial restructure and revive loss making PSU to invite private capital for long term turnaround. 3. Enhance government receipt by disinvestment in profitable PSUs Initially 40 out of the 245 PSUs were referred to the disinvestment committee Conclusion ? Public sector enterprises ? Private sector enterprises ? Privatization ? Need of privatization ? Obstacles of privatization ? Ways of privatization- Disinvestment ? Advantages and disadvantages Thanks toÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Prof. Suneel Gupta Associate Professor, Ghs-IMR, Kanpur Prof. Mansur Ali Khan NSB Prof. Surjyabrat Buragohain NSB Thank you all ?SIVAPRASAD P V ? PREMKUMAR ? VIGNESH ? MANOJ